linuxea:kubernetes helm简单使用(50)

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2018-12-16 / 0 评论 / 2,587 阅读 / 正在检测是否收录...
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核心组件与程序架构

核心组件

  • Chart

一个helm程序包,包含了k8s上部署应用程序的清单的定义(并不包含镜像,镜像是由镜像仓库来提供),镜像的引用,依赖关系,资源定义等等。必要时,包含其他的定义,如:Service.

  • Repository

而Chart是有多个,放置到Repository,也可以说是一个Chart。同时也是一个http/https服务器。

  • Release

Chart实例化后部署在kubernetes cluster之上的Chart实例,就叫做Release。之所以称作为Release,是因为将Chart拿来提供了配置信息。

在chart中,会提供一些配置信息,也就是值文件,这些文件最终用来给模板赋值,而后将Chart模板当中的属性使用config或者值文件赋值后生成Release。而config就是值文件,也是应用程序实例化安装运行时候使用的配置信息。

程序架构

而helm程序由两部分组成,helm客户端和tiller服务端。服务端可以运行在kubernetes之上,也可以运行在kubernetes集群之外,如果运行在kubernetes集群外配置起来是非常麻烦的,多数情况下tiller都会运行在kubernetes集群之上。而helm只是作为本地的客户端,helm基于go语言编写,基于GRPC协议与tiller server进行交互,能够实现管理本地的chart仓库,也可以管理chart,也要与tiller交互,用于发送chart,实现实例安装,查询,卸载等操作。

tiller作为服务端,监听来自helm的请求,而后将helm发来的chart和config合并在一起(将config赋值到chart当中),完成部署应用程序,生成release。

helm安装

helm是工作在本地的客户端,不必要是k8s集群内的主机来进行安装部署。

[root@linuxea ~]# wget https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-helm/helm-v2.11.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz
[root@linuxea ~]# tar xf helm-v2.11.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
[root@linuxea ~]# ln -s /usr/local/linux-amd64/helm /usr/local/bin/helm
[root@linuxea ~]# helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.11.0", GitCommit:"2e55dbe1fdb5fdb96b75ff144a339489417b146b", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Error: could not find tiller
[root@linuxea ~]# 

tiller生成

tiller使用init本身就可以自动生成。helm本身第一次init的时候会联系到api server,api server只会着部署tiller的pod,这也就意味着helm需要链接api server,且需要认认证,并还要管理员权限。helm会获取当前系统的上的kuberctl的权限,在~/.kube/下的config文件是可以被helm获取到。helm会扮演成kubectl客户端,进行初始化和部署安装。

[root@linuxea ~]# ls ~/.kube/
cache  config  http-cache

tiller部署在K8s集群的时候,tiller需要获取集群的管理权限,以便于完成安装,卸载等的管理权限。.

RBAC权限

部署完成helm之后在进行部署tiller的时候,需要在k8s有RBAC集群上,设置RBAC的配置,依赖的用户名(service accout)就是叫做tiller。这个tiller如果要很大的权限的话,就需要绑定到clusterrobingd之上。如下:

  • 此前部署k8s集群的时候是强制启用RBAC的,那就需要配置RBAC
[root@linuxea manifests]# cat ~/linuxea/manifests/tiller-rbac.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: tiller
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: tiller
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: tiller
    namespace: kube-system

如果是名称空间就需要其他的配置。其他配置参考:https://github.com/helm/helm/blob/master/docs/rbac.md#example-service-account-with-cluster-admin-role

apply

[root@linuxea manifests]# kubectl apply -f ~/linuxea/manifests/tiller-rbac.yaml
serviceaccount/tiller created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tiller created
[root@linuxea manifests]# kubectl get sa -n kube-system|grep tiller
tiller                               1         28s

生成

在第一次生成的时候会在家目录下生成一个/root/.helm 的目录,其中包含很多本地参考的文件。最后在kubernetes-charts.storage.googleapis.com获取一个stable repo

[root@linuxea manifests]# helm init --service-account tiller
Creating /root/.helm 
Creating /root/.helm/repository 
Creating /root/.helm/repository/cache 
Creating /root/.helm/repository/local 
Creating /root/.helm/plugins 
Creating /root/.helm/starters 
Creating /root/.helm/cache/archive 
Creating /root/.helm/repository/repositories.yaml 
Adding stable repo with URL: https://kubernetes-charts.storage.googleapis.com 
Adding local repo with URL: http://127.0.0.1:8879/charts 
$HELM_HOME has been configured at /root/.helm.

Tiller (the Helm server-side component) has been installed into your Kubernetes Cluster.

Please note: by default, Tiller is deployed with an insecure 'allow unauthenticated users' policy.
To prevent this, run `helm init` with the --tiller-tls-verify flag.
For more information on securing your installation see: https://docs.helm.sh/using_helm/#securing-your-helm-installation
Happy Helming!
[root@linuxea 
[root@linuxea manifests]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                           READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-78fcdf6894-9q7cp                       1/1       Running   0          2d
coredns-78fcdf6894-t8vjc                       1/1       Running   0          2d
etcd-linuxea.master-1.com                      1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-apiserver-linuxea.master-1.com            1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-controller-manager-linuxea.master-1.com   1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-j54qv                    1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-kq995                    1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-m2m6t                    1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-sx5cz                    1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-xfvst                    1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-proxy-8tvxw                               1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-proxy-9vr46                               1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-proxy-fmlfq                               1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-proxy-gt6sk                               1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-proxy-vtzm2                               1/1       Running   0          2d
kube-scheduler-linuxea.master-1.com            1/1       Running   0          2d
metrics-server-v0.3.1-57ddf848d8-wdx6l         2/2       Running   0          2d
tiller-deploy-57f988f854-g8hw6                 1/1       Running   0          27s

现在已经安装完成Client和Server端版本都是v2.11.0

[root@linuxea ~]# helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.11.0", GitCommit:"2e55dbe1fdb5fdb96b75ff144a339489417b146b", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Server: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.11.0", GitCommit:"2e55dbe1fdb5fdb96b75ff144a339489417b146b", GitTreeState:"clean"}

此刻可以安装一些应用程序,只需要install即可。

由于tiller是由deploy控制器控制,如果要卸载 tiller服务端,只需要删除deploy控制器即可。

使用helm

远程更新仓库,helm repo update。这条命令会跳过本地而链接远程仓库。

[root@linuxea ~]# helm repo update
Hang tight while we grab the latest from your chart repositories...
...Skip local chart repository
...Successfully got an update from the "stable" chart repository
Update Complete. ⎈ Happy Helming!⎈ 
[root@linuxea ~]# 

我们可以通过https://hub.kubeapps.com/查找一些helm资源。

对一些资源选中就可以查看到详情页

helm2.png

helm3.png

并且,也可以使用helm使用search搜索,这和docker类似。helm search --help查看帮助。如果没有填写关键词就会列出所有,helm search nginx搜索当前内所有的nginx可以用。如下:

[root@linuxea ~]# helm search nginx
NAME                           CHART VERSION    APP VERSION    DESCRIPTION                                                 
stable/nginx-ingress           0.31.0           0.20.0         An nginx Ingress controller that uses ConfigMap to store ...
stable/nginx-ldapauth-proxy    0.1.2            1.13.5         nginx proxy with ldapauth                                   
stable/nginx-lego              0.3.1                           Chart for nginx-ingress-controller and kube-lego            
stable/gcloud-endpoints        0.1.2            1              DEPRECATED Develop, deploy, protect and monitor your APIs...
[root@linuxea ~]# 

并且可以探索内部的详细信息。这些信息和网页上说差不多

[root@linuxea ~]# helm inspect stable/nginx-ingress

其次,在repo list中可以看到有稳定版路径和本地路径,如果需要添加incubator,就需要将路径添加

[root@linuxea ~]# helm repo list
NAME      URL                                             
stable    https://kubernetes-charts.storage.googleapis.com
local     http://127.0.0.1:8879/charts  

repo add 添加如下,参考:https://github.com/helm/charts

[root@linuxea ~]# helm repo add incubator https://kubernetes-charts-incubator.storage.googleapis.com/
"incubator" has been added to your repositories

示例

如果我们要安装一个应用,可以在搜索到后进行安装,并且配合values文件进行赋值。一般来讲,不赋值也会有默认参数。

安装一个memcached为例

[root@linuxea ~]# helm search memcached
NAME                CHART VERSION    APP VERSION    DESCRIPTION                                                 
stable/memcached    2.3.1            1.5.6          Free & open source, high-performance, distributed memory ...
stable/mcrouter     0.1.1            0.36.0         Mcrouter is a memcached protocol router for scaling memca...
[root@linuxea ~]# helm inspect stable/memcached

安装 helm install --name linuxea-men stable/memcached

[root@linuxea ~]# helm install --name linuxea-men stable/memcached
NAME:   linuxea-men  名称
LAST DEPLOYED: Fri Nov 16 13:44:46 2018   部署时间
NAMESPACE: default  部署的名称空间
STATUS: DEPLOYED 当前状态

RESOURCES:
==> v1/Service  
NAME                   AGE
linuxea-men-memcached  1s

==> v1beta1/StatefulSet
linuxea-men-memcached  1s

==> v1beta1/PodDisruptionBudget pod回收机制
linuxea-men-memcached  1s

==> v1/Pod(related)

NAME                     READY  STATUS   RESTARTS  AGE
linuxea-men-memcached-0  0/1    Pending  0         1s


NOTES:
Memcached can be accessed via port 11211 on the following DNS name from within your cluster:
linuxea-men-memcached.default.svc.cluster.local

If you'd like to test your instance, forward the port locally:

  export POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods --namespace default -l "app=linuxea-men-memcached" -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}")
  kubectl port-forward $POD_NAME 11211

In another tab, attempt to set a key:

  $ echo -e 'set mykey 0 60 5\r\nhello\r' | nc localhost 11211

You should see:

  STORED

并且可以使用 export POD_NAME=$(kubectl get pods --namespace default -l "app=linuxea-men-memcached" -o jsonpath="{.items[0].metadata.name}")验证

删除使用[root@linuxea ~]# helm delete linuxea-men

helm常用命令:

 delete   删除       
 history   历史命令  
 install   安装    
 list     查看   
 rollback  回滚 
 search    查找 
 upgrade  修改  
 history 查看部署历史
 status  获取状态信息

chary管理命令

create    创建
delete    删除
fetch     获取,从仓库下载到本地,并且展开
get       获取,仅仅下载    
inspect   查看chart详细信息,包括使用,接收值,传递参数等等。      
package   将本地开发的包打包
verify    校验

示例2

我们试图创建一个redis

[root@linuxea ~]# helm search redis
NAME                                CHART VERSION    APP VERSION    DESCRIPTION                                                 
stable/prometheus-redis-exporter    0.3.4            0.21.2         Prometheus exporter for Redis metrics                       
stable/redis                        4.2.10           4.0.11         Open source, advanced key-value store. It is often referr...
stable/redis-ha                     3.0.1            4.0.11         Highly available Kubernetes implementation of Redis         
stable/sensu                        0.2.3            0.28           Sensu monitoring framework backed by the Redis transport  

安装

[root@linuxea ~]# helm install --name redis1 stable/redis

创建完成可以使用helm list进行查看

[root@linuxea ~]# helm list
NAME           REVISION    UPDATED                     STATUS      CHART                   APP VERSION    NAMESPACE
redis1         1           Sat Nov 17 06:30:50 2018    DEPLOYED    redis-4.2.10            4.0.11         default  
right-molly    1           Fri Nov 16 13:50:01 2018    DEPLOYED    nginx-ingress-0.31.0    0.20.0         default  

所有安装的应用都会被get到本地来进行 应用,存放/root/.helm/cache/archive路径下

[root@linuxea archive]# cd /root/.helm/cache/archive
[root@linuxea archive]# ls
memcached-2.3.1.tgz  nginx-ingress-0.31.0.tgz  redis-4.2.10.tgz

这些taz包可以拆开

[root@linuxea archive]# tar xf redis-4.2.10.tgz 
tar: redis/Chart.yaml: implausibly old time stamp 1970-01-01 01:00:00
tar: redis/values.yaml: implausibly old time stamp 1970-01-01 01:00:00
tar: redis/templates/NOTES.txt: implausibly old time stamp 1970-01-01 01:00:00
tar: redis/templates/_helpers.tpl: implausibly old time stamp 1970-01-01 01:00:00
...

其中这些Yaml文件与我们之前所写的大不一样

[root@linuxea archive]# tree redis
redis
├── Chart.yaml 描述信息
├── README.md 叙述文件
├── templates 模板文件
│   ├── configmap.yaml
│   ├── health-configmap.yaml
│   ├── _helpers.tpl
│   ├── metrics-deployment.yaml
│   ├── metrics-svc.yaml
│   ├── networkpolicy.yaml
│   ├── NOTES.txt
│   ├── redis-master-statefulset.yaml
│   ├── redis-master-svc.yaml
│   ├── redis-rolebinding.yaml
│   ├── redis-role.yaml
│   ├── redis-serviceaccount.yaml
│   ├── redis-slave-deployment.yaml
│   ├── redis-slave-svc.yaml
│   └── secret.yaml
├── values-production.yaml
└── values.yaml

1 directory, 19 files
[root@linuxea archive]# 

这些yaml文件大多调用go模板语法进行赋不同的值传递参数来完成不同的部署,而之前所说的config就是为模板中的属性提供值的配置信息,也可以定义在values.yaml中,并且在install 的时候进行加载即可。其中双##号上注释,单#号表示可以启用的选项

示例values

我们修改values的一些配置信息,使得redis正常启动

[root@linuxea archive]# cp redis/values.yaml ~/linuxea/manifests/helm/
[root@linuxea archive]# cd ~/linuxea/manifests/helm/

我们修改下参数,使得使用本地目录存储

  persistence:
    enabled: false

删掉此前的创建的redis,在进行部署一次

[root@linuxea templates]# helm delete right-molly redis1 
release "right-molly" deleted
release "redis1" deleted

重新部署一次

[root@linuxea helm]# helm install --name linuxea-redis -f values.yaml stable/redis
[root@linuxea helm]# kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                                   READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP            NODE
linuxea-redis-master-0                 1/1       Running   0          1m        172.16.4.64   linuxea.node-3.com
linuxea-redis-slave-77f4768cd8-rf4l2   1/1       Running   1          1m        172.16.3.78   linuxea.node-2.com

使用helm status linuxea-redis可以查看历史中的创建状态信息

[root@linuxea helm]# helm  status linuxea-redis
LAST DEPLOYED: Sun Nov 18 05:16:38 2018
NAMESPACE: default
STATUS: DEPLOYED

RESOURCES:
==> v1beta2/StatefulSet
NAME                  AGE
linuxea-redis-master  2m

==> v1/Pod(related)

NAME                                  READY  STATUS   RESTARTS  AGE
linuxea-redis-slave-77f4768cd8-rf4l2  1/1    Running  1         2m
linuxea-redis-master-0                1/1    Running  0         2m

==> v1/Secret

NAME           AGE
linuxea-redis  2m

==> v1/ConfigMap
linuxea-redis-health  2m

==> v1/Service
linuxea-redis-master  2m
linuxea-redis-slave   2m

==> v1beta1/Deployment
linuxea-redis-slave  2m


NOTES:
** Please be patient while the chart is being deployed **
Redis can be accessed via port 6379 on the following DNS names from within your cluster:

linuxea-redis-master.default.svc.cluster.local for read/write operations
linuxea-redis-slave.default.svc.cluster.local for read-only operations


To get your password run:

    export REDIS_PASSWORD=$(kubectl get secret --namespace default linuxea-redis -o jsonpath="{.data.redis-password}" | base64 --decode)

To connect to your Redis server:

1. Run a Redis pod that you can use as a client:

   kubectl run --namespace default linuxea-redis-client --rm --tty -i \
    --env REDIS_PASSWORD=$REDIS_PASSWORD \
   --image docker.io/bitnami/redis:4.0.11 -- bash

2. Connect using the Redis CLI:
   redis-cli -h linuxea-redis-master -a $REDIS_PASSWORD
   redis-cli -h linuxea-redis-slave -a $REDIS_PASSWORD

To connect to your database from outside the cluster execute the following commands:

    kubectl port-forward --namespace default svc/linuxea-redis 6379:6379 &
    redis-cli -h 127.0.0.1 -p 6379 -a $REDIS_PASSWORD

我们run一个client试图登录

[root@linuxea helm]# kubectl run --namespace default linuxea-redis-client --rm --tty -i \
>     --env REDIS_PASSWORD=$REDIS_PASSWORD \
>    --image docker.io/bitnami/redis:4.0.11 -- bash

If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
I have no name!@linuxea-redis-client-79859b8d88-2zczc:/$ 

而后直接登录redis

I have no name!@linuxea-redis-client-79859b8d88-2zczc:/$  redis-cli -h linuxea-redis-master -a $REDIS_PASSWORD
Warning: Using a password with '-a' option on the command line interface may not be safe.

可info查看

linuxea-redis-master:6379> info
# Server
redis_version:4.0.11
redis_git_sha1:00000000
redis_git_dirty:0
redis_build_id:a3b8846cf74959a5
redis_mode:standalone
os:Linux 4.9.12-1.el7.centos.x86_64 x86_64
arch_bits:64
multiplexing_api:epoll
atomicvar_api:atomic-builtin
gcc_version:6.3.0
process_id:1
run_id:d4288c1f28433ba066538fb02d33bcb0038a9f97
tcp_port:6379
uptime_in_seconds:246
uptime_in_days:0
hz:10
lru_clock:15791815
executable:/opt/bitnami/redis/bin/redis-server
config_file:/opt/bitnami/redis/etc/redis.conf

# Clients
connected_clients:1
client_longest_output_list:0
client_biggest_input_buf:0
blocked_clients:0

# Memory
used_memory:1917896
used_memory_human:1.83M
used_memory_rss:11833344
used_memory_rss_human:11.29M

查看主从状态

# Replication
role:master
connected_slaves:1
slave0:ip=172.16.3.78,port=6379,state=online,offset=322,lag=1
master_replid:6f6a4fe934510bc0187e62c519fc28ee53cf0d8d
master_replid2:0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
master_repl_offset:322
second_repl_offset:-1
repl_backlog_active:1
repl_backlog_size:1048576
repl_backlog_first_byte_offset:1
repl_backlog_histlen:322

# CPU
used_cpu_sys:0.11
used_cpu_user:0.12
used_cpu_sys_children:0.04
used_cpu_user_children:0.02

# Cluster
cluster_enabled:0

# Keyspace
linuxea-redis-master:6379> 
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