linuxea:kubernetes 部署prometheus和grafana(47)


I. prometheus

metrics-server可以对核心指标进行监控。 除开节点,podCPU内存之外的其他指标是无法获取的,就要借助prometheus。

prometheus提供的资源指标是不能够被k8s解析的,要想能在k8s上使用prometheus, 就需要额外加一个prometheus的资源转换,转成k8s api能够兼容的格式,才能被当作指标数据使用。

架构形式如下:

prometheus本身就是一个监控系统,有一个代理插件,如zabbix和zabbix-agent。

我们先假设prometheus是server端。prometheus要从一个被监控主机节点来获取数据,如果这个节点不是一个pod,而是一个虚拟机,物理机,就部署一个专门的软件 -> node_exoorter,而node_exoorter就相当于客户端。node_exoorter能够让prometheus来采集指标数据的组件,但是这个组件只是用来去暴露,输出,采集当前节点的节点级别的数据。如果要采集其他的,比如haproxy,就需要haproxy的exoorter。如果要去采集pod,pod也有专门的exoorter接口。

而且,容器的日志也在节点之上的/var/log/containers/中,这些日志从接口被输出来。事实上只需要获取到节点上的这些日志,就能够很容易的获取节点上pod容器中的日志。

简单的说prometheus就是通过metrics rul到各个pod获取数据,这些数据被采集后通过一个PromQL查询语句进行查询,PromQL支持restfull风格接口的查询条件表达式。通过这种restfull接口方式可以监控到采集到各种指标数据,但是这些指标不能够被k8s的api server所解释,因为这两种是不互相兼容的。

如果期望通过k8s的api server像在api中请求获取数据一样获取指标数据,并且是prometheus采集的指标数据,就必须把PromQL的数据转换成k8s中自定义定义的的查询接口格式(costom metics API),就需要在k8s的(costom metics AP)接口下嵌套一个组件,这个组件称为k8s-promethues-adpater,是有第三方提供。而kube-state-metrics 负责转换数据,k8s-promethues-adpater负责接收转换的数据。如下:

PromQL语句完成从Prometheus查询到语句,并转为k8s api上的指标格式数据,并支持通过api获取。前提是将custom Metrics API聚合到api server,就能正常从api-versions看到这个api。

promethues是有状态应用,并且自身就是一个时间序列数据库

prometheus-configmap.yaml   统计pod数据和定义运行环境的
kube-state-metrics-deployment.yaml  部署k8s-prometheus-adpater,使自定义的指标数据被系统使用
alertmanager-pvc.yaml  警报器管理器,使用到pvc
prometheus-statefulset.yaml 配置需求
kube-state-metrics-deployment.yaml   这些是将prometheus数据转换
kube-state-metrics-rbac.yaml
kube-state-metrics-service.yaml
要聚合成api server中的功能 ,就需要在部署一个组件,k8s-prometheus-adpater

promethues是有状态应用,因此,使用statefulset控制。如果一个pod server不够就需要多个,这也就是使用statefulset的原因。

使用https://github.com/iKubernetes/k8s-prom路径下的文件进行,完成部署实验

  • 创建一个prom的名称空间,运行prometheus
k8s-prometheus-adapter 完成自定义数据应用
kube-state-metrics  # kube-state部署相关
namespace.yaml  创建prom名称空间
node_exporter  收集节点指标
prometheus     使用deploy部署prometheus

克隆

[root@linuxea opt]# git clone https://github.com/iKubernetes/k8s-prom.git
Cloning into 'k8s-prom'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 46, done.
remote: Total 46 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 46
Unpacking objects: 100% (46/46), done.
[root@linuxea opt]# tree k8s-prom/
-bash: tree: command not found
[root@linuxea opt]# cd k8s-prom/

II. 创建名称空间

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl apply -f namespace.yaml 
namespace/prom created

III. 部署node_exporter

apply node_exporter

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl apply -f node_exporter/
daemonset.apps/prometheus-node-exporter created
service/prometheus-node-exporter created

而后在prom中的名称空间下的pod已经运行起来,这些pod的kind是DaemonSet,每个节点会运行一个pod,收集Node主机资源。包括主节点

这里面的node-exporter pod版本用的是prom/node-exporter:v0.16.0

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl get pods,svc -n prom
NAME                             READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP            
prometheus-node-exporter-b7f2s   1/1     Running   0          2m4s  10.10.240.161 
prometheus-node-exporter-cqnwh   1/1     Running   0          2m4s  10.10.240.142 
prometheus-node-exporter-k2q7f   1/1     Running   0          2m4s  10.10.240.203 
prometheus-node-exporter-x86b4   1/1     Running   0          2m4s  10.10.240.202 
prometheus-node-exporter-znhb8   1/1     Running   0          2m4s  10.10.240.143 

NAME                               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
service/prometheus-node-exporter   ClusterIP   None         <none>        9100/TCP   2m31s

IV. 部署prometheus

创建prometheus

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl apply -f prometheus/
configmap/prometheus-config created
deployment.apps/prometheus-server created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus created
serviceaccount/prometheus created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus created
service/prometheus created

prometheus是以30090端口暴露出来的

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl get pods,svc -n prom
NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-4xq5h      1/1     Running   0          37m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-8qh82      1/1     Running   0          37m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-b5kwx      1/1     Running   0          37m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-dgvfv      1/1     Running   0          37m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-gm9pv      1/1     Running   0          37m
pod/prometheus-server-5f8cd4755-ns5l7   1/1     Running   0          11m

NAME                               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
service/prometheus                 NodePort    10.105.244.208   <none>        9090:30090/TCP   11m
service/prometheus-node-exporter   ClusterIP   None             <none>        9100/TCP         37m

而后使用30090访问

V. 部署kube-state-metrics

部署使用kube-state-metrics

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl  apply -f kube-state-metrics/
deployment.apps/kube-state-metrics created
serviceaccount/kube-state-metrics created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kube-state-metrics created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kube-state-metrics created
service/kube-state-metrics created

kube-state-metrics输出的service监听在8080端口之上,向外提供服务的。

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl get all -n prom
NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/kube-state-metrics-68d7c699c6-gstgg   1/1     Running   0          9m34s
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-4xq5h        1/1     Running   0          84m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-8qh82        1/1     Running   0          84m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-b5kwx        1/1     Running   0          84m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-dgvfv        1/1     Running   0          84m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-gm9pv        1/1     Running   0          84m
pod/prometheus-server-5f8cd4755-ns5l7     1/1     Running   0          59m

NAME                               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
service/kube-state-metrics         ClusterIP   10.98.44.126     <none>        8080/TCP         9m35s
service/prometheus                 NodePort    10.105.244.208   <none>        9090:30090/TCP   59m
service/prometheus-node-exporter   ClusterIP   None             <none>        9100/TCP         84m

NAME                                      DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
daemonset.apps/prometheus-node-exporter   5         5         5       5            5           <none>          84m

NAME                                 DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/kube-state-metrics   1         1         1            1           9m35s
deployment.apps/prometheus-server    1         1         1            1           59m

NAME                                            DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/kube-state-metrics-68d7c699c6   1         1         1       9m35s
replicaset.apps/prometheus-server-5f8cd4755     1         1         1       59m

VI. 部署prometheus-adapter

k8s-prometheus-adapter需要给予https提供服务,而默认情况下k8s-prometheus-adapter是http协议的。需要提供一个证书,使其运行成https,并且需要被此k8s服务器认可的ca签署才可以。我们自制一个即可。

而后创建secret,名称和custom-metrics-apiserver-deployment.yaml中一样

        secret:
          secretName: cm-adapter-serving-certs

自制证书

[root@linuxea ~]# cd /etc/kubernetes/pki

生成私钥

[root@linuxea pki]# (umask 077;openssl genrsa -out serving.key 2048)
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
..............+++
...............................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

生成签署请求

[root@linuxea pki]# openssl req -new -key serving.key -out serving.csr -subj "/CN=serving"
[root@linuxea pki]# ll serving.*
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  887 Nov 10 09:38 serving.csr
-rw-------. 1 root root 1675 Nov 10 09:36 serving.key

签证

[root@linuxea pki]# openssl x509 -req -in serving.csr -CA ./ca.crt -CAkey ./ca.key -CAcreateserial -out serving.crt -days 3650
Signature ok
subject=/CN=serving
Getting CA Private Key
[root@linuxea pki]# ll serving.*
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  977 Nov 10 09:39 serving.crt
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  887 Nov 10 09:38 serving.csr
-rw-------. 1 root root 1675 Nov 10 09:36 serving.key

创建secret

在prom名称空间中创建secret

[root@linuxea pki]# kubectl create secret generic cm-adapter-serving-certs --from-file=serving.crt=./serving.crt --from-file=serving.key=./serving.key -n prom
secret/cm-adapter-serving-certs created
[root@linuxea pki]# kubectl get secret -n prom
NAME                             TYPE                                  DATA   AGE
cm-adapter-serving-certs         Opaque                                2      4s
default-token-x8t89              kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      144m
kube-state-metrics-token-6n8rj   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      26m
prometheus-token-8lqgk           kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      76m

prometheus-adapter

在应用之前,我们修改几个参数

先替换到custom-metrics-apiserver-deployment.yaml文件

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# mv /opt/k8s-prom/k8s-prometheus-adapter/custom-metrics-apiserver-deployment.yaml /opt/

下载k8s-prometheus-adapter

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# curl -Lks https://raw.githubusercontent.com/DirectXMan12/k8s-prometheus-adapter/master/deploy/manifests/custom-metrics-apiserver-deployment.yaml  -o /opt/k8s-prom/k8s-prometheus-adapter/custom-metrics-apiserver-deployment.yaml

替换namespace为prom

而后apply

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl apply -f k8s-prometheus-adapter/
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/custom-metrics:system:auth-delegator created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/custom-metrics-auth-reader created
deployment.apps/custom-metrics-apiserver created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/custom-metrics-resource-reader created
serviceaccount/custom-metrics-apiserver created
service/custom-metrics-apiserver created
apiservice.apiregistration.k8s.io/v1beta1.custom.metrics.k8s.io created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/custom-metrics-server-resources created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/custom-metrics-resource-reader created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/hpa-controller-custom-metrics created

确保在api-versions中出现custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1

[root@linuxea k8s-prom]# kubectl api-versions|grep custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1
custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1

打开 一个代理进行curl这个api,通过这个端口curl获取指标数据

[root@linuxea ~]# kubectl proxy --port=1808
Starting to serve on 127.0.0.1:1808
[root@linuxea k8s-prometheus-adapter]# curl localhost:1808/apis/custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1

VII. grafana

仍然修改namespace为prom,并且网络类型中添加type: NodePort

如果influxdb,可以注释掉

[root@linuxea metrics]# kubectl apply -f grafana.yaml 
deployment.apps/monitoring-grafana created
service/monitoring-grafana created

查看下端口是否能够进行访问

[root@linuxea metrics]# kubectl get pods,svc -n prom 
NAME                                           READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/custom-metrics-apiserver-65f545496-pj89v   1/1       Running   0          18m
pod/kube-state-metrics-58dffdf67d-7sv77        1/1       Running   0          20m
pod/monitoring-grafana-ffb4d59bd-hjtc4         1/1       Running   0          30s
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-m74w9             1/1       Running   0          21m
pod/prometheus-node-exporter-xgpqs             1/1       Running   0          21m
pod/prometheus-server-65f5d59585-nx5b2         1/1       Running   0          21m

NAME                               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
service/custom-metrics-apiserver   ClusterIP   10.97.212.117   <none>        443/TCP          18m
service/kube-state-metrics         ClusterIP   10.100.137.12   <none>        8080/TCP         21m
service/monitoring-grafana         NodePort    10.98.244.37    <none>        80:30980/TCP     30s
service/prometheus                 NodePort    10.109.127.27   <none>        9090:30090/TCP   21m
service/prometheus-node-exporter   ClusterIP   None            <none>        9100/TCP         21m

URL位置使用的是service名称路径,那端口就是prometheus的9090端口.http://prometheus.prom.svc:9090

下载一个cluster的模板1,pod模板2node模板3

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日期: 2018-12-11分类: kubernetes

标签: kubernetes

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